Tripodos <p><strong><em>Tripodos</em></strong> is an academic journal of international scope published by the <a href="">Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations</a>, <a href="">Ramon Llull University</a>. Since 1996, the pages of this biannual publication have offered a forum for debate and critical discussion with regard to any discipline related to the world of communication: journalism, cinema, television, radio, advertising, public relations, the Internet, etc.</p> <p>The journal only accepts articles written in English.</p> <p><strong><em><br />Trípodos:</em></strong></p> <p>- Is indexed in<span class="st"> SCOPUS and in Web of Science (WoS) - Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI) database</span>.</p> <p>- Occupies the 14th position in 2019 REDIB Ranking of Ibero-American Journal Rankings in the category of Communication.</p> <p>- Is in category C of the CIRC classification (Integrated Classification of Scientific Journals).</p> <p>- Is indexed, among others, in the following databases and catalogs: Ulrich’s periodicals directory, EBSCO Publishing, Communication Source, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), ERIH PLUS, ISOC, DICE, MIAR, Latindex, Dulcinea, REBID, Library of Congress, British Library, COPAC, SUDOC, ZDB, OCLC WorldCat, Dialnet, Carhus Plus+, RACO.</p> <p>- Has an h5-index of 11 in Google Scholar Metrics (2014-2018) and an h5-median of 18.</p> <p><a href="">Author guidelines</a></p> <p><a href="">Evaluation form</a></p> Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations, Ramon Llull University en-US Tripodos 1138-3305 <p>Once an article has been approved for publication in Tripodos, the exclusive right to publish the work becomes the property of Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations of Ramon Llull University. These rights can be granted to a third party with the agreement of the author(s).</p> <p>Until the articles have been approved for publication, Blanquerna School of Communication and International Relations of Ramon Llull University has no rights over them.</p> <p>The submission of articles is understood to represent explicit consent to these conditions of publication.</p> Introduction Introduction Emiliana de Blasio Patricia Coll-Rubio Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 7 10 Recurrent Narratives Around the COVID-19 Crisis in Social Networks: A Case Study Analysis on Facebook <p>In recent years, social networks have played a significant role during major crisis events as citizens use these net­works to seek information, discuss and share personal news stories, while in­teracting with other users regarding issues related to the perceived crisis. As a result, news content posted on social networks is of crucial importance since it can affect public opinion in various ways. The aim of this study is to as­sess dominant narratives generated through users’ reactions towards news content posted on Facebook so as to examine the role of Facebook during the global crisis of COVID-19. Drawing from different aspects of crisis commu­nication theory and audience-centered studies, this work seeks to investigate the constructed meanings related to this crisis and interpret users’ under­standing of news content posted on social networks. Content analysis is employed as a means to evaluate Face­book’s potential in (re)defining users’ narratives regarding issues related to COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, Facebook, crisis, users’ narratives, news stories.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p><div id="gtx-trans" style="position: absolute; left: 58px; top: 139.988px;"></div> Venetia Papa Theodora A. Maniou Copyright (c) 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 2 47 11 28 Governmental Communication and Brand Advertising During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has prompt­ed governments and brands around the world to produce short audiovisual spaces with different objectives. This research examines the governmental and business communication within the Ibero-American sphere.</p> <p>Audiovisual products belonging to YouTube official channels of govern­mental institutions were observed. These productions have been categorized ac­cording to their intention (informative, appealing, emotional or poetic).</p> <p>Results show a predominance of refer­ential videos in government commu­nication, followed by the appealing intention and somewhat less by the emotional and poetic intentions. The intention of the business spots can also be categorized into the follow­ing: informing about what companies do during the COVID-19 crisis, their support of the StayHome campaign, messages of encouragement, sales of products or brand image, gratitude campaigns towards professionals and citizens, and focusing on the return af­ter the pandemic.</p> <p>It is concluded that governments and businesses are marking arduous me­dia efforts during the health emergen­cy, with special differences in terms of quality and quantity. Finally, recom­mendations are made in this regard.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, coronavirus, crisis communication, governmental communication, brand advertising.</p> <p> </p> Álvaro Jiménez-Sánchez Vasilica-Maria Margalina Eliza Vayas-Ruiz Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 29 46 Transmedia Context and Twitter As Conditioning the Ecuadorian Government’s Action. The Case of the “Guayaquil Emergency” During the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>Communication ecosystems have mul­tiplexed and increased their capacity to act, distort, and fight. COVID-19 pan­demic and the response of the Ecuado­rian Government to it are clear exam­ples of the power of media to erode, to influence, and also to produce fake news. In this context, Twitter has be­come more than just a social plat­form, as it helped spread catastrophic pictures of the country, especially of Guayaquil. This article analyzes the tweets posted by the main domestic and global media and by the Ecuadori­an government accounts since the out­break of the pandemic in Ecuador, as well as the interrelations among them and their polarity score. The aim is to show how the government changed its action plan by focusing on exogenous elements that had been excluded from its (pre)established strategy, which consisted in neglecting and deliberate­ly minimizing a situation that turned out to be more serious than officially deemed and that was exposed by un­official global media.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Twitter, social network, mass media, impact, COVID-19, Ecuador.</p> <p> </p> Arturo Luque Francesco Maniglio Fernando Casado Jorge García-Guerrero Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 47 68 Reproduction of Communicative Negativity Through Instrumental Irrationality <p>This paper aims to use Turkey as an ex­ample of how the erosion occurring in social communication practices is repro­duced in the era of paradoxical experi­ences, particularly in global crisis envi­ronments where risk intensity increases. Recently, ‘the great incarceration’ situa­tion around the world has forced people to receive news and connect to them via digital platforms. The isolation of social relations for an indefinite period, espe­cially in risk society, causes people to feel constantly under pressure from an un­foreseen/indeterminate threat. The in­crease in the level of anxiety of the indi­vidual under pressure, internalizing fear after a while, turns him/herself into the very mechanism that produces anxiety and fear. This mechanism causes society to become paralyzed as a result of in­creased information pollution and the amount of information during global crisis periods. The paper examines how the negativity in communication has been exploited through the media with crises in different institutional areas —political, economic, and social— re­cently, in the framework of the terms of risk and trust used by Giddens and Beck’s risk society theory. From this point on, the paper focuses on the con­sequences of the mutual relationship between global crisis, fear culture and the new modern period.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, global crisis, info­demic, risk society, sociology of commu­nication, media.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ugur Baloglu Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 69 86 Digital Subscription Systems in the Face of COVID-19 Crisis: The Case of ‘El Mundo’ <p>The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the income models of the Spanish general inter­est press through an in-depth analysis of the case of ‘El Mundo’. This article shows data about the decline in adver­tising, both in printed and digital for­mats, during the first quarter of 2020 and, more specifically, during March. It also reveals that the media platforms with a previously implemented sub­scription system have gained a signif­icant number of new registrations. Not only is ‘El Mundo’ an example of this trend, but also other newspapers such as ‘’, ‘Ara’, ‘La Razón’ or ‘La Voz de Galicia’. The reader becomes an alternative to lessen advertising losses at a time of global transformation of the industry towards reader-revenue models. Long-term consequences of a probable economic recession once the pandemic effects are reduced are also considered in the analysis. The article also outlines some key points to ensure the viability of newspaper publishers, such as investing in journalists with relevant sources or profiles that know how to manage new digital businesses.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>COVID-19, press, business, subscriptions and advertising.</p><div id="gtx-trans" style="position: absolute; left: 347px; top: 152.488px;"></div> Enrique Canovaca de la Fuente Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 87 102 COVID-19 Media Coverage on Spanish Public TV <p>The respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 has affected over 100 countries during the last weeks. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization de­clared the COVID-19 outbreak a pan­demic and since 31 December 2019, 201,315 deaths have been reported. The media has played a key role in providing information and making people aware of the situation during this emergency situation. This re­search seeks to examine the corona­virus media coverage on the Spanish public TV (TVE1). In order to achieve this goal, a content analysis based on the five stages of grief, an audience survey, and focus group interviews were conducted. The results have shown that coverage has undergone different phases. Accordingly, each of these stages has been perceived by the audience. Although both the au­dience and the experts appreciate the work of Spanish public television, the majority opinion is negative. In this re­gard, they state that it has not been impartial and there has been an ex­cess of information. For researchers, these results provide important guide­lines to increase the number of liter­ature reviews by considering not only the news but also the audience and experts’ perceptions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: COVID-19, coverage, audi­ence, perceptions, content analysis.</p><div id="gtx-trans" style="position: absolute; left: 393px; top: 206.488px;"></div> Eduardo Villena-Alarcón Lidia Caballero-Galeote Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 103 126 The Imaginary of an Invisible Enemy: The SARS-CoV-2 Virion on the Spanish TV News <p>During epidemiological crises, tradi­tional media have played an essential informational role. In this paper we analyze the imaginary of COVID-19 and, specifically, of the representa­tion of the virion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus through news reports from the main Spanish TV channels. This virion, represented as an “invisible enemy” that has confined half of the world population, is presented in the news using 3D illustrations that highlight its roughened surface and elongated spikes ending in tentacles, an image that does not cor-respond to scientific illustrations. These and other attributes suggest that the imaginary of COV­ID-19 has inherited the imaginary of other previous episodes of coronavirus­es being not scientifically accurate but motivated by the journalistic objective of representing the main characteris­tics of the virus and the severity of the danger.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>visual communication, health risk communication, television news, COVID-19, pandemic.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p><div id="gtx-trans" style="position: absolute; left: 53px; top: 114.988px;"></div> Isidro Jiménez-Gómez Jaime López-Díez Gema Bonales-Daimiel Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 127 144 Communicating COVID-19: Metaphors We “Survive” By <p>The objective of this paper is to de­scribe the framing of the pandem­ic that the world currently endures during the mandatory quarantine taking place in Argentina. This par­ticular study is part of a bigger cor­pus of research that investigates the relationship between discourses held by enterprises, politicians and media in the digital age and how it affects communication at times of crisis. This is a qualitative study that explores emerging metaphorical language that is being implemented to communicate salient aspects of the unprecedented phenomenon that is COVID-19 in a partial way. It is important to point out that the analysis is made at the same time that the crisis is unfolding. In order to develop this perspective, we will rely on a previous framework developed to study communication of crisis. Our research has led us to identify a “family” of metaphors that emerge from the headlines of the cor­pus: war, care and time. Identifying and understanding the emerging met­aphors is the first step to avoid contra­dictions that can lead to double binds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: crisis, pandemic, digital me­dia, metaphors, double binds.</p> Damián Fernández-Pedemonte Felicitas Casillo Ana Inés Jorge-Artigau Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 145 160 The TV-Production Shift During the COVID-19 Health Crisis: How TV Language Changed As a State of Alarm Was Enforced in Spain <p>TV consumption has broken records in Spain during the COVID-19 lockdown period enforced in the country subject to State-of-Alarm provisions. Audience data have shown unprecedented consump­tion rates. Specifically, over 335 min­utes of consumption per citizen per day; and a 2.1-million news-bulletin viewer growth in March (Barlovento, 2020a).</p> <p>TV script writers, camera operators, directors, editors and producers alike have been working under the strictest rules to comply with all the health and labour standards. The production team —specifically, its director— makes im­portant decisions as regards pre-pro­duction, recordings, actual production and post-production. Upon going live, a director relies on their team’s profes­sionalism, being ultimately responsi­ble for deciding what —and how and when— is seen on screen, as well as for its visual quality. A director is the per­son at the heart and core of a program broadcast on TV (Bernad, 2016).</p> <p>This paper aims at bringing to public notice a change of method in live TV production team work during the first month of lockdown, as well as in the workplace shift. It also aims to reveal the increase in the use of video con­ferencing signals, Skype or WhatsApp, which have replaced the traditional satellite and radio frequency signals, a process entailing visible quality losses.</p> <p>The analysis system is based on ques­tions posed to those professionals in­volved in TV broadcasts during the first month of State-of-Alarm enforcement by means of video calls, online surveys and WhatsApp messages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>production, TV, Skype, coro­navirus, quality</p> <p> </p> Belén Andueza-López María López-Plaza Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 161 172 Table of Contents Revista Trípodos Copyright (c) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 2 47 1 6