Luxury Fashion Brands and Women: A Comparative Analysis between Brands and Consumers on Instagram




luxury brands, women, objectification, sexism stereotypes, Instagram


This study examines how luxury fashion brands and luxury fashion brand hashtags that consumers use in their posts portray women on Instagram. The study was framed by sexual objectification theory (physical presentation, body display, sexually suggestive poses, and feminine touch) and sexism stereotypes (women in traditional roles such as dependent, caretaker, decorative and sexual object). This study examines 700 Instagram posts, 350 from top luxury fashion brands, and 350 from consumers. Young and skinny women’s images dominate Instagram posts created by luxury fashion brands, while consumers are older and fit. Unexpected results show that luxury fashion brands feature women less sexually desirable, with less sexually suggestive poses and fewer sexist stereotypes than consumers.

Author Biographies

Marta Mensa, Austral University (Chile)

Marta Mensa ( is a professor at the Social Communication Institute at the Austral University in Chile. She has a PhD in advertising from Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), a postdoc of gender studies from National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and she just finished the Emerging Leaders Programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She is a visiting professor at Marquette University (United States) and UAB (Spain). Her research interests are gender in advertising, digital marketing, and creative advertising. She has published articles in Young Consumers, Communication and Society, and European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies. She is a member of the Gender Studies Center (Chile), a member of Marketing Research Center (Mexico), and a member of Advertising Research Group (Spain).

Tao (Tony) Deng, DePaul University (USA)

Tao (Tony) Deng ( is an assistant professor of advertising in the College of Communication at DePaul University. Tony has a PhD in media and information studies from Michigan State University, a M. A. in communication from Marquette University, and a M.Soc.Sc. in media management from Hong Kong Baptist University. Tony worked as editor for China Daily and Guangzhou Daily, and in advertising agencies in Hong Kong. His research looks at international advertising appeal and strategies, consumer psychophysiological response to advertising, and digital advertising.  


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2021-07-01 — Updated on 2021-07-08


How to Cite

Mensa, M., & Deng, T. (Tony). (2021). Luxury Fashion Brands and Women: A Comparative Analysis between Brands and Consumers on Instagram. Tripodos, (50), 17-35. (Original work published July 1, 2021)