The Visual-Digital Identity of Corporate Brands: A Study of Neuromarketing in Young People from Spain and Portugal

Authors

  • Luis Mañas-Viniegra Universidad Complutense de Madrid
  • Dora Santos-Silva Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Sheila Liberal Ormaechea Universidad Francisco de Vitoria

Keywords:

corporate visual identity, brand, neuromarketing, flat design, digital communication

Abstract

The rise of social networks and brand communication in digital media has led to an update of the corporate visual identity of major brands, including those in traditional sectors in which corporate culture is generally deep-rooted and more reluctant to change. The two-dimensional logos that simulate a volume and depth characteristic of those of three dimensions have been simplified and are now flat for better inclusion in various digital supports so as to improve their legibility and more accurately reflect the current values of the brand’s objective. The objective of this research is to determine the cognitive processing of young university students of traditional brand logos in relation to the current ones that are simple, flat, and two-dimensional. The neuromarketing techniques used are eye-tracking to measure attention, and galvanic skin response (GSR) to measure the emotion shown by the public. The main conclusion is that young people place more attention and emotion on flat logos with simple lines, which are more integrated into digital media.

Author Biographies

Luis Mañas-Viniegra, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Profesor ayudante doctor en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y miembro del grupo de investigación Gestión de Marcas y Comunicación Integrada.

Dora Santos-Silva, Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Profesora Auxiliar Invitada en la Universidade Nova de Lisboa, NOVA-FCSH, en el Departamento de Ciencias de la Comunicación

Sheila Liberal Ormaechea, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria

Vicedecana de Investigación en la Facultad de Comunicación de la Universidad Francisco de Vitoria,

References

Aaker, Jennifer L. and Lee, Angela Y. (2001). “’I’ Seek Pleasures and ‘We’ Avoid Pains: The Role of Self-Regulatory Goals in Information Processing and Persuasion”. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, pp. 33-49. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1086/321946>.

Abdullad, Zulhamri [et al.] (2013). “Building a Unique Online Corporate Identity”. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 31 (5), pp. 451-471. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-04-2013-0057>.

Añaños-Carrasco, Elena (2015). “EyeTracker Technology in Elderly People: How Integrated Television Content Is Paid Attention To and Processed”. Comunicar, 23 (45), pp. 75-83. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.3916/C45-2015-08>.

Ariely, Dan and Berns, Gregory S. (2010). “Neuromarketing: The Hope and Hype of Neuroimaging”. Business. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, pp. 284-292. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2795>.

Baron, Andrew S.; Zaltman, Gerald, and Olson, Jerry (2017). “Barriers to Advancing the Science and Practice of Marketing”. Journal of Marketing Management, 33 (11-12), pp. 893-908. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2017.1323839>.

Bernstein, David (1986). Company Image and Reality: A Critique of Corporate Communications. London: Cassell.

Bettels, Jannick and Wiedmann, Klaus P. (2019). “Brand Logo Symmetry and Product Design: The Spillover Effects on Consumer Inferences”. Journal of Business Research, 97, pp. 1-9. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.039>.

Bossel, Vera; Geyskens, Kelly, and Goukens, Caroline (2019). “Facing a Trend of Brand Logo Simplicity: The Impact of Brand Logo Design on Consumption”. Food, Quality and Preference, 71, pp. 129-135. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual. 2018.06.009>.

Bresciani, Sabrina and Ponte, Paolo del (2017). “New Brand Logo Design: Customers’ Preference for Brand Name and Icon”. Journal of Brand Management, 24 (5), pp. 375-390. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-017-0046-4>.

Capriotti, Paul (2009). Branding corporativo. Fundamentos para la gestión estratégica de la identidad corporativa. Santiago de Chile: Colección de Libros de la Empresa.

Check-Teck, Foo (2001). “Designing E-logos in Corporate Identity Strategy”. Journal of Brand Management, 8 (4), pp. 334-345. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.bm.2540032>.

Chen, Yu-Shan A. and Bei, Lien T. (2019). “Free the Brand: How a Logo Frame Influences the Potentiality of Brand Extensions”. Journal of Brand Management, 26 (4), pp. 349-364. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-018-0142-0>.

Costa, Joan (2003). Imagen corporativa. Influencia en la gestión. Madrid: Fundesco.

Critchley, Hugo D. (2002). “Electrodermal Responses: What Happens in the Brain”. Neuroscientist, 8 (2), pp. 132-142. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1177/107385840200800209>.

Cuesta-Cambra, Ubaldo; Niño-González, José I., and Rodríguez-Terceño, José (2017). “The Cognitive Processing of an Educational App with EEG and Eye Tracking”. Comunicar, 52 (3), pp. 41-50. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.3916/C52-2017-04>.

Drèze, Xavier and Hussherr, François X. (2003). “Internet Advertising: Is Anybody Watching?”. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17 (4), pp. 8-23. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1002/dir.10063>.

Dubberly, Jamie (1995). “Protecting Corporate Identity”. Communication Arts, 36, pp. 8-23.

Duchowski, Andrew (2013). Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice. London: Springer-Verlag.

Fernández-Rincón, Antonio R. (2019). “The Legacy of the Bauhaus in the Graphic Visual Identity of Organizations: Ideology of Flatness and Flat Design”. Pensar la Publicidad, 13, pp. 65-85. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.5209/pepu.65020>.

Foroudi, Pantea; Melewar, T. C., and Gupta, Suraksha (2014). “Linking Corporate Logo, Corporate Image, and Reputation: An Examination of Consumer Perceptions in the Financial Setting”. Journal of Business Research, 67 (1), pp. 2269-2281. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.06.015>.

Foroudi, Pantea [et al.] (2019). “Conceptualizing and Managing Corporate Logo: A Qualitative Study”. Qualitative Market Research, 22 (3), pp. 381-404. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-04-2017-0080>.

Gabrieli, John E.; Ghosh, Satrajit S., and Whitfield-Gabrielo, Susan (2015). “Prediction As a Humanitarian and Pragmatic Contribution from Human Cognitive Neuroscience”. Neuron, 85, pp. 11-26. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.10.047>.

García-García, Francisco; Llorente-Barroso, Carmen, and García-Guardia, María L. (2010). “The Global Construction of the Logo-Symbol and the Globalization of the Brand Through the Same One”. Historia y Comunicación Social, 15, pp. 125-148. Available at: <https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/HICS/article/view/HICS1010110125A>. Accessed 19 December 2019.

Girard, Tulay; Anitsal M. Meral, and Anitsal, Ismet (2013). “The Role of Logos in Building Brand Awareness and Performance: Implications for Entrepreneurs”. The Entrepreneurial Executive, 18 (1), pp. 7-16. Available at: <https://www.abacademies.org/articles/eevol18no12013.pdf>. Accessed 17 December 2019.

Grobert, Julien; Cuny, Caroline, and Fornerino, Marianela (2016). “Surprise! We Hanged the Logo”. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 25 (3), pp. 239-246. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-06-2015-0895>.

Gu, Baotong T. and Yu, Meng (2016). “East Meets West on Flat Design: Convergence and Divergence in Chinese and American User Interface Design”. Technical Communication, 63 (3), pp. 231-247.

Iancu, Ioana and Iancu, Bogdan (2017). “Recall and Recognition on Minimalism. A Replication of the Case Study on the Apple Logo”. Kome, 5(2), pp. 57-70. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.17646/KOME.2017.24>.

Jiménez-Gómez, Isidro and Mañas-Viniegra, Luis (2018). “Ofertas de empleo mejor remuneradas en comunicación y diseño: nuevos perfiles y efecto ‘full-stack’”. Doxa Comunicación,27, pp. 239-251. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.31921/doxacom.n27a12>.

Kaur, Harsandaldeep and Kaur, Kanwalroop (2019). “Connecting the Dots Between Brand Logo and Brand Image”. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 11 (1), pp. 68-87. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/APJBA-06-2018-0101>.

Kelly, Meghan (2017). “Analysing the Complex Relationship Between Logo and Brand”. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 13 (1), pp. 18-33. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1057/pb.2016.3>.

Kerr-Gaffney, Jess; Harrison, Amy, and Tcanturia, Kate (2018). “Eye-tracking Research in Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review”. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 52 (1), pp. 3-27. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22998>.

Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J., and Chamberlain, Laura (2007). “What Is ‘Neuromarketing’? A Discussion and Agenda for Future Research”. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63 (2), pp. 199-204. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.03.007>.

Luffarelli, Jonathan; Mukesh, Mudra, and Mahmood, Ammara (2019). “Let the Logo Do the Talking: The Influence of Logo Descriptiveness on Brand Equity”. Journal of Marketing Research, 56 (5), pp. 862-878. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1177/0022243719845000>.

Luffarelli, Jonathan; Stamatogiannakis, Antonios, and Yang, Haiyang (2019). “The Visual Asymmetry Effect: An Interplay of Logo Design and Brand Personality on Brand Equity”. Journal of Marketing Research, 56 (1), pp. 89-103. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1177/0022243718820548>.

Madan, Christopher R. (2010). “Neuromarketing: The Next Step in Market Research?”. Eureka, 1 (1), pp. 34-42. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.29173/eureka7786>.

Mañas-Viniegra, Luis; Veloso, Ana I., and Cuesta, Ubaldo (2019). “Fashion Promotion on Instagram with Eye Tracking: Curvy Girl Influencers ‘versus’ Fashion Brands in Spain and Portugal”. Sustainability, 11 (14), e3977. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143977>.

Morin, Christopher (2011). “Neuromarketing: The New Science of Consumer Behavior”. Society, 48 (2), pp. 131-135. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1007/s12115-010-9408-1>.

Müller, Brigitte; Kocher, Bruno, and Crettaz, Antoine (2013). “The Effects of Visual Rejuvenation Through Brand Logos”. Journal of Business Research, 66 (1), pp. 82-88. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.026>.

Olins, Wally (2009). The Brand Handbook. London: Thames and Hudson.

Petty, Richard E. and Cacioppo, John T. (1979). “Issue-Involvement Can Increase or Decrease Persuasion by Enhancing Attribute-Relevant Cognitive Responses”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (10), pp. 1915-1926. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1915>.

Plassmann, Hilke and Karmarkar, Uma R. (2016). “Consumer Neuroscience: Revealing Meaningful Relationships Between Brain and Consumer Behavior”. In: Lamberton, C.; Norton, M., and Rucker, D. (eds.). Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 152-179.

Plassmann, Hilke; Ramsoy, Thomas Z., and Milosavljevic, Milica (2012). “Branding the Brain: A Critical Review and Outlook”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22 (1), pp. 18-36. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.010>.

Riel, Cees B. M. van and Ban, Anouschka van den (2001). “The Added Value of Corporate Logos: An Empirical Study”. European Journal of Marketing, 35 (3/4), pp. 428-440. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560110382093>.

Salvador-Rivero, Andrea and Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel (2016). “The Visual Identity of Luxury in Spain”. Prisma Social, 17, pp. 1-23. Available at: <https://revistaprismasocial.es/article/view/1273>. Accessed 18 December 2019.

Sharma, Nazuk and Varki, Sajeev (2018). “Active White Space (AWS) in Logo Designs: Effects on Logo Evaluations and Brand Communication”. Journal of Advertising, 47 (3), pp. 270-281. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2018.1463880>.

Varan, Duane [et al.] (2015). “How Reliable Are Neuromarketers’ Measures of Advertising Effectiveness: Data from Ongoing Research Holds no Common Truth Among Vendors”. Journal of Advertising Research, 55 (2), pp. 176-191. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.2501/JAR-55-2-176-191>.

Villafañe, Justo (1999). La gestión professional de la imagen corporativa. Madrid: Pirámide.

—. (2012). La buena empresa. Propuesta para una teoría de la reputación corporativa. Madrid: Pearson.

Walsh, Michael F.; Cui, Annie P., and Mac-Innis, Deborah J. (2019). “How To Successfully Introduce Logo Redesigns”. Journal of Brand Management, 26 (4), pp. 365-375. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1057/s41262-018-0141-1>.

Zhong, Ke; Wang, Haizhong, and Zhang, Caiyun (2018). “Brand Elongation Effect: The Impact of Logo Shape on Assessment of Products’ Temporal Property and Brand Evaluation”. Nankai Business Review International, 9 (1), pp. 59-77. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/NBRI-05-2017-0022>.

Zhu, Zhijuan; Cao, Huai, and Li, Bin (2017). “Research on Logo Design and Evaluation of Youth Education Brands Based on Visual Representation”. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 26 (7), pp. 722-733. Available at: <https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-08-2016-1287>.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-02